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Caligula (Latin: Caius Iulius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 31 August 12 AD - 24 January 41 AD), also known as Gaius, was the Emperor Roman between 37-41. He was a member of the conventional ruling house known as the Iulio-Claudian dynasty. Germanicus was the father of Caligula, nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, he was a successful general and one of the most beloved public figures in Rome. Young Gaius received the nickname Caligula (meaning "boot", the Caliga diminutive, a Roman soldier's sandal) from his father's soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germany.

CALIGULA

Caligula

Image of Caligula

When Germanicus died in Antioch in 19 AD, his wife Agrippina returned to Rome, along with the six children, where they were caught in a bitter conflict with Tiberius. This conflict resulted in the destruction of his family, with him as the only survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, he accepted the invitation to reside in the king's yard on the island of Capri in AD 31, where Tiberius had retired five years. Upon the death of Tiberius in AD 37, he succeeded his adopted grandfather and grandfather. There are some sources of survivors during the reign of Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate leader in the first six months of his reign. After that, sources focus on his cruelty, extravagance and sexual perversion, portraying him as a mad tyrant. While the reliability of these sources has been increasingly questioned, it is known that during his short reign, Caligula worked to increase his personal power of emperor without restrictions. He has initiated much of the ambitious construction projects and notorious luxury homes for him. However, he also initiated the construction of two new aqueducts in Rome: Claudia Aqua and Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauritania and made it a province. At the beginning of AD 41, he was the first Roman emperor assassinated, the result of a conspiracy involving Pretorian Guard officers, as well as members of the Roman Senate and the Imperial Court. The purpose of the conspirators was "to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic," but the plan was thwarted: on the same day, the Pretorian Guard declared his uncle, Claudius, emperor in his place.

Family

He was born in Antium, as the third of the six surviving children, the parents being Germanicus and Agrippina. The brothers of Gaius were Nero and Drusus. His sisters were Iulia Agrippina, Iulia Drusilla and Iulia Livilla. Gaius was the grandson of Claudius (the future emperor). His mother, Agrippina, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa Vipsanius and Iulia Maior, who was a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia.

Youth

At the age of only 2-3 years, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, in campaigns in northern Germany. The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier uniform, including boots and armor. He received the nickname of Caligula, which means "small (soldier) shoes" in Latin after the little boots he wore as part of his uniform. Gaius grew up with this pseudonym. Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius, who regarded Germanicus as a political rival. After his father's death, Caligula lived with his mother until his relationship with Tiberius deteriorated. Tiberius did not allow Agrippina to remarry, for fear her husband would be a rival. Agrippina and Caligula's brother, Nero, were exiled in 29 AD. under the accusation of treason. As an adolescent he was then sent to live first and foremost with his great-grandmother (and Tiberius' mother) Livia. After Livia's death, he was sent to live with Antonia, his grandmother. In 30 AD, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was jailed for treason, and his brother, Nero, died in exile either by hunger or by suicide. Suetonius writes that, after the expulsion of his mother and his brothers, Caligula and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners in the palace of Tiberius. In 31 AD, Caligula was resubmitted to personal care of Tiberius on Capri, where he lived for six years. To the surprise of many, Caligula's life was spared by Tiberius. According to historians, Caligula was an excellent actor and dancer and hid all his resentment with Tiberius. An observer told Caligula that "He was never a better servant or a master worse!". An observer said of Caligula, "There was never a better servant or a worse master!". He is said to have been sexually sexually molested by Tiberius. Every day, he had to humiliate Tiberius at his courtyard in Capri, where a group of young boys, pleading with him, had entertained the old man with a variety of sexual pleasures, including the muscles of the genitals while he The Caligula was forced to witness the executions and torture committed by Emperor Tiberius, which would influence his childhood, and he wanted to overcome his predecessor when he became king. After becoming a king, Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: however, after bringing the gun into Tiberius's bedroom, he did not kill the Emperor , but instead he threw the dagger down on the floor. It is supposed that Tiberius knew of this, but did not dare to do anything with him. Suetonius claims that Caligula was already cruel and vicious. He writes that when Tiberius brought Caligula to Capri, his purpose was to allow Caligula to live, for he "... proves his own ruin by all men, and that he was raised as a viper for the Roman people and a Phaeton for the world. " In 33 AD, Tiberius gave Caligula a quaestor of honor, a position he held until he became emperor. Meanwhile, both Caligula's mother and his brother, Drusus, died in prison. Caligula soon married Junia Claudilla in 33, though she died during the next year's birth. Caligula spent his time with the Pretorian Prefect, Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally. Macro talked well about Caligula of Tiberius, trying to silence any will or suspicion of the Emperor over Caligula. In 35 AD, Caligula was named heir to the real estate by Tiberius, along with Tiberius Gemellus.

Emperor

Early reign

When Tiberius died on March 16, 37 his fortune and the headlines were left to Caligula and to his nephew Tiberius, Gemellus, both serving as heirs. Though Tiberius was 78 on the deathbed, some historians still assume he was killed by Caligula himself to take revenge for childhood abused by sexual abuse.

Caligula pulled out the imperial ring with a seal on Tiberius' finger, believing that he had died, and was then saluted by the crowd as emperor. She then announced that Tiberius had come back and asked for food. Caligula was terrified of the thought of his revenge Tiberius ordered Naevius Cordus Sertus Macro, the commander of the Pretorian Guards, to go to the Emperor's bedroom and suck him with a pillow. Tacitus writes that the Pretorian Prefect, Macro, suffocated Tiberius with a cushion to hurry his success, moreover for the joy of the Roman people, while Suetonius wrote that he had carried out the killing, although this was not recorded by to any other ancient historian. Seneca the Elder and Philo, who wrote both during the reign of Tiberius, as well as Josephus recorded that Tiberius had a natural death. Based on Macro, he will not offer anything inherited to Gemellus for reasons of madness. He accepted the powers of the Principality conferred by the Senate and entered Rome on 28 March in the midst of a crowd that welcomed him as "our child" and "our star," among other nicknames. Caligula is described as the first emperor to have been admired by everyone in "all over the world, from sunrise to sunset." Caligula was loved by many as the beloved son of the popular Germanicus, and not as the son of Tiberius. Suetonius wrote that over 160,000 animals were sacrificed over three months in the name of the joy of the public in the context of the new reign. Philon describes the first seven months of Caligula's reign as happy. Caligula's first acts were: to be generous, although he was of political nature to get support. He granted bonuses to those in the army, including the Pretorian Guard, troops in the city, and the army outside of Italy. He destroyed Tiberius' treachery and said the treason study was a thing of the past and reminded those who were sent into exile. He supported those who were affected by the imperial tax system, forbidden certain deviant sexual behaviors and initiated gladiator battles for the public. Caligula gathered and brought back the bones of his mother and brothers and deposited their remains in Augustus' mausoleum. In October 37 AD, Caligula became seriously ill. He recovered from his illness shortly thereafter, but many believed that the young Emperor had changed into a diabolic mind, becoming paranoid and beginning to see plotting and conspiracy anywhere. Thus, they began their first purges by killing or exiling those they see as serious threats. He executed his cousin, Gemellus. Others say he committed suicide, although Suetonius's clues show that Caligula actually poisoned him. He also executed his father-in-law, Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother, Marcus Lepidus. His uncle Claudius was spared just because he "amused" him. His favorite sister, Iulia Drusilla, died in 38 AD. of a fever: and the other two sisters, Livilla and Agrippina, were exiled. He hated the fact that he was Agrippa's nephew and slandered Augustus by repeating the lie that his mother was actually the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and Julia's old daughter.

Caligula was behaving with astonishing perversity; while visiting a Romanian legion stationed on the Rhine, decided to decimate it immediately, on the grounds that the soldiers rebelled against his father, Germanicus 24 years before. When the Legionnaires were furious and the soldiers were on the verge of a ragmallit, Caligula , a notorious, despite his brutality, struggled to retreat, returning to Rome. His native Sadism was obvious, forcing parents to witness the execution of their children while he was standing and looking, It is funny to joke, ordering the burning of a writer for writing something ambiguous, or forcing people to be beaten until they almost die, then allowing them to come back to prolong their suffering. In some games he presides, he ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the crowd in the arena during the pause to be eaten by animals because they were not criminal prisoners and were bored. He practiced incest with his sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla, and Livilla, and is said to have prostituted them with other men. Besides sadism, Caligula felt the need to bark and humiliate-as revenge for the unhappiness of his own childhood full of pain, on the island of Capri. The muffins he endured there were paid off with a peak and indifferent to those who could not protect him or his family from tyranny and the sexual perversions of Tiberius.

Divinity

When more kings came to Rome to pay tribute to them and sustained their nobility of origin, he cried out, "Let there be one Lord, one king." In 40 AD, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into its political role. Caligula began to appear in publicly dressed in various gods and demigods, such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo. According to sources, he began referring to himself as a god in meetings with politicians and was mentioned as Jupiter in public documents. A sacred enclosure was set aside for his worship at Miletus in the Asian province, and two other temples were built by him in Rome. Castor and Pollux's home was an Imperial residence on Palatin Hill and dedicated to Caligula. He presented himself as a god for the public. Caligula took the heads of various statues of gods and replaced them with his own appearance in various temples. It is said that he wanted to be revered as Neos Helios, the New Sun. Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on the Egyptian coins. He even had the boldness of picking up a statue at the Temple in Jerusalem.

Public Reforms

In 38 AD, Caligula focused all attention on political and public reform. He published accounts of public funds that were not made public during the reign of Tiberius. He helped those who lost their properties in fires, eliminated certain taxes and offered awards to the public at gymnastic events. He gave access to new members in equestrian and senatorial order. Perhaps most significant, he has restored the practice of democratic elections. In the same year, however, Caligula was criticized for serving people without trial and forcing Macro to commit suicide.

Financial crisis and famine

According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis began in 39. Suetonius places the beginning of this crisis in 38. Political payments to Caligula for social support, generosity and extravagance have exhausted the state treasury. Historians say Caligula has begun killing individuals to confiscate their property. A series of other desperate measures committed by Caligula are described by historians. In order to get funds, he asked the public to borrow money from the state. Caligula has charged taxes on lawsuits, marriage and prostitution. He started bidding for gladiators at shows. Centurions who acquired their property through war were forced to surrender the prey to the state. Commissioners have been accused of incompetence and misappropriation and forced to return the money. According to Suetonius, in the first year of Caligula's reign, 27 million siblings Caligula had inherited from Tiberius. He quickly found other mild victims - wealthy Romanian citizens, whom he accused of betraying as to takes their wealth. The Obelisk of the Vatican was first brought from Egypt by Caligula to Rome. This was the focus for a racing track. A short hunger of unknown size occurred, probably caused by this financial crisis, but also because of Caligula's seizures, as cereal imports were compromised by the construction of a Caligula order of pontoons.

Constructions

Despite financial difficulties, he has engaged in a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, while others were for him. Josephus describes that Caligula's most ambitious project was to improve the ports of Regium and Sicily, thus allowing the increase in cereal imports from Egypt. These improvements could be made in response to hunger. He completed the temple of Augustus and Pompey's theater and began an amphitheater near Saepta. He had the extended imperial palace. He began to build aqueducts Aqua Claudia Anio and Novus. He built a racing track-Hippodrome because of his horse-racing and passionate horse passion. Caligula supported the green team and dine in their stables, inspecting the horses and overwhelming their leaders with generous gifts. His obvious enthusiasm and generous sponsorship of this sport have brought him great popularity among the masses. At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and temples of the gods. He built new roads and kept them in good condition. He planned to rebuild the Polycrates Palace in Samos to finish Apollo Didymaean's Temple at Ephesus and build a large city in the Alps. He planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus of Greece and sent a chief centurion to supervise the construction. In 39, he performed a spectacular forceful tour of a temporary floating bridge in which ships like pontoons were built, stretching from two miles from the resort of Baiae at the port of Puteoli (Pozzuoli). It is said that the bridge rivals the Xerxes Persian king from the Hellespont Pass. Caligula, a man who did not know how to swim and went up on his favorite horse, Incitatus, crossing the bay, wearing the plaid of Alexander the Great. He had two large ships built by himself, which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. The ships are among the largest vessels in the ancient world.

Enemy of the Senate

In 39 AD, the relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate have deteriorated. A number of factors have aggravated this conflict. His mania was largely directed against the Senate, whose members were arbitrarily arrested, then subjected to torture and slow and agonizing death for alleged infidelity. Caligula ordered a new series of investigations and trials. He replaced the consul and sentenced more senators to death. Suetonius declared that the senators had to wait for him to run in his carriage. Caligula was faced with a series of additional conspiracy against him. A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was defeated at the end of 39. Shortly thereafter, the governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy. His discourse or what went as a Romanian morality came to light when he decided to open a brothel in his own palace. The first clients were terrified senators who were called there with their wives to serve him. After dinner he took it in turn, each wife in his bedroom, letting his humiliated husband stay with the others silently. When he came back from the room, he spoke with delightful details of sexual acts. Sadistic acts did not have a political purpose, but they were fulfilled for his pleasure. He had three elderly senators one night, leading them to the palace theater. As he awaited his imminent execution, Caligula sank into the stage dressed in a pilgrim long and began to improvise a number of songs and dances, then kicked out the senators with a joyful hand movement. As a sign of contempt for the Senate, Caligula called him consul on his favorite horse, Incitatus.

External policy

He has stifled many riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Compliments in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agripa, who became the governor of Batanaea and Trahonite. The cause of tensions in the Near East was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and Jewish rights. He executed the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. In 39 AD, Agrippa accused Herod Antipa, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a riot against the Roman leadership with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipa confessed, and he exiled him. The riots broke out again in Alexandria in 40 between the Jews and the Greeks. In response, Caligula ordered a statue to be erected in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

Mauritania was a Roman kingdom led by Ptolemy of Mauritania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then executed him all at once. Mauritania was annexed by Caligula and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauritania Tingitana and Mauritania Caesariensis, separated by the Malua River.

He led a campaign in the north to Britain. He was baffled by ancient historians, gales dressed like the Germanic tribes of his triumph, and Roman troops ordered to collect shellfish as "sea prey." Modern historians have invoked numerous theories in an attempt to explain this action. This trip to the English Channel would have been just a training and research mission.

Assassination

Caligula's actions as emperor have been described as particularly tough for the Senate, the nobility, and the Equestrian Order. According to Josephus, these actions have led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. Finally, a successful murder was planned by Cassius Chaerea's pretorian guard officers. According to Josephus, Chaire had political motivations for assassination. Caligula considered Chaire to be effeminate because of the weak voice. Caligula laughed at Chaerea and mocked him with names like "Priapus" and "Venus". On January 24, 41, Chaire and the Guards captured Caligula as he approached a young band during a series of dramatic games and games. Chaire was the first to stab Caligula, followed by a number of conspirators. Suetonius writes that Caligula's death was similar to that of Julius Caesar. Assassination would have taken place in the Cryptoporticus (underground corridor). Until Caligula's loyal Germanic guard came to the alert, the emperor was already dead. The Germanic Guard, struck by pain and anger, responded with an unleashed attack to assassins, conspirators, innocent senators, and passers-by alike. The Senate tried to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic, supported by Chaire, but remained loyal to the emperor's office. The suffering Roman people demanded that Caligula's murderers be brought to justice. The wanted soldiers grabbed the wife of Caligula, Caesonia, and their daughter Julia Drusilla, by crushing her head against a wall. They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius, who was taken out of town after being discovered by a soldier in the nearby Pretorian camp. Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard and ordered execution of Chaire. According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was laid under the turf until it was burned and buried by its sisters. He was buried in Augustus' Mausoleum, but in 410, during the robbery of Rome, the ashes of his tomb were scattered.

Caligula's actions as emperor have been described as particularly tough for the Senate, the nobility, and the Equestrian Order. According to Josephus, these actions have led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. Finally, a successful murder was planned by Cassius Chaerea's pretorian guard officers. According to Josephus, Chaire had political motivations for assassination. Caligula considered Chaire to be effeminate because of the weak voice. Caligula laughed at Chaerea and mocked him with names like "Priapus" and "Venus". On January 24, 41, Chaire and the Guards captured Caligula as he approached a young band during a series of dramatic games and games. Chaire was the first to stab Caligula, followed by a number of conspirators. Suetonius writes that Caligula's death was similar to that of Julius Caesar. Assassination would have taken place in the Cryptoporticus (underground corridor). Until Caligula's loyal Germanic guard came to the alert, the emperor was already dead. The Germanic Guard, struck by pain and anger, responded with an unleashed attack to assassins, conspirators, innocent senators, and passers-by alike. The Senate tried to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic, supported by Chaire, but remained loyal to the emperor's office. The suffering Roman people demanded that Caligula's murderers be brought to justice. The wanted soldiers grabbed the wife of Caligula, Caesonia, and their daughter Julia Drusilla, by crushing her head against a wall. They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius, who was taken out of town after being discovered by a soldier in the nearby Pretorian camp. Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard and ordered execution of Chaire. According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was laid under the turf until it was burned and buried by its sisters. He was buried in Augustus' Mausoleum, but in 410, during the robbery of Rome, the ashes of his tomb were scattered.


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